|Pic from valleypbs.org - Thanks!|
For those of you engaged in a PECS protocol, a helpful cheat sheet care of DePaul University (with some additions/edits). This may not be trademark-worthy of PECS, but it works!
First conduct a reinforcer assessment- What the student likes to eat, drink, activities, social games, places, people, free time activities.
Phase One- The Physical Exchange
Upon seeing a "highly preferred" item, the student will pick up a picture of the item, reach toward the trainer, and release the picture into the trainer's hand. Steps:
1. Fully Assisted Exchange
2. Fade Physical Assistance
3. Fade the Open Hand Cue
Phase Two- Expanding Spontaneity
Objective: The student goes to his/her communication board/book, pulls the picture off, goes to the adult, and releases the picture into the adult's hand. Steps:
1. Remove Picture From Communication Board
2. Increase Distance Between Trainer and Student
3. Increase Distance Between Student and Picture
Phase Three- Picture Discrimination
Objective: The student will request desired items by going to a communication board, selecting the appropriate picture from an array of pictures, going to a communication partner and giving the picture. Steps:
1. Discrimination between preferred and non-preferred picture cards
2. Correspondence Checks (* definition below)
3. Discrimination between 2 preferred picture cards
4. Discrimination between more than 2
5. Reduced Picture Size
Phase Four- Sentence Structure
Objective: The student requests present and non present items using a multi word phrase by going to the book, picking up a picture of "I want," putting it on a sentence strip, picking out the picture of what is wanted, putting it on the sentence strip, removing the strip from the communication board, approaching the communicative partner, and giving the sentence strip to him/her. Steps:
1. Stationary "I want" picture (already on the sentence strip for the student)
2. Moving the "I want" picture to the sentence strip
3. Referents (preferred items) not in sight.
Phase Five- Responding to "What do you want?"
Objective: The student can spontaneously request a variety of items and can answer the question, "What do you want?" Steps:
1. Zero second delay – The communication partner begins simultaneously points to the “I want” card and asks “What do you want?”
2. Increasing delay interval – ask “What do you want?” before pointing to the “I want” card
3. No pointing cue.
Phase Six- Responsive and Spontaneous Commenting
Objective: The student appropriately answers "What do you want?" "What do you see?" "What do you have?" and similar questions. Steps:
1. What do you see? (with familiar, but not highly preferred items)
2. Vary two question types (What do you see? vs. What do you want?) with both sentence starter cards present
3. What do you have?
4. What do you see? vs. What do you want? vs. What do you have?
5. Additional questions
6. Spontaneous requesting
* Correspondence check: Present two preferred items and have pictures of both available on the communication book. When the learner presents the communication partner with one picture, do not give the item and do not name the item. Offer both items and say, “Go ahead,” “Show me,” “Here,” or something similar. If the learner takes the item that corresponds with the picture presented, allow access, provide praise, and name the item. If the learner reaches for the other item, block access and begin an error-correction sequence for the picture that corresponds to the item reached for by the learner.
Error correction sequence:
Step 1. When the learner gives the wrong picture, the communication partner picks up the correct picture, shows it to the learner, and verbally labels it.
Step 2. When the learner looks at the picture, the communication partner prompts the learner to give the correct picture by holding out his/her hand near the picture, physically prompting if necessary.
Step 3. When the learner gives the correct picture, the communication partner verbally acknowledges the correct response, but does not give the learner the object. The communication partner follows with a non-related directive (e.g., “Touch your head.”).
Step 4. When the learner follows the directive, the communication partner entices him/her by interacting with the desired object.
Step 5. When the learner touches the correct picture, the communication partner provides verbal praise.
Step 6. When the learner gives the correct picture, the communication partner hands the desired object to the learner.